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 Practical Reasons for Learning Citation  

Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing
 Practical Research Strategies  
 Citation Styles Overview  
 Citation Examples, APA and MLA Style  
 Citing Electronic Resources  
Citation, Citation, Citation!

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Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing



Here are some guidelines for properly quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing someone else’s text in the APA citation style. For in-text-examples in MLA, please see the UMUC library MLA In-text citations webpage. For additional APA examples please see the UMUC library APA In-text citations webpage. The quote, paraphrase, and summary are from the following source:

Source: Fossey, D. (1983). Gorillas in the mist. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.


If you quote another work word-for-word, you must put this passage in quotation marks and use an in-text citation as well as a full citation at the end of your paper.


"This unique observation provides only one example of the strong maternal inclinations of female gorillas. An amazing aspect of the incident was that Effie, whose back was turned toward her infant, was aware of Poppy’s silent plight even before the human onlooker facing both animals realized that something was amiss" (Fossey, 1983, p. 89).


Paraphrasing is putting another person’s words in your own words. You may wish to paraphrase in order to maintain your particular style of phrasing things. Paraphrased material must be cited!


"In Gorillas in the Mist, Fossey (1983) gives an example to demonstrate that gorillas are very protective mothers. As a tiger approached her offspring Effie, a mother gorilla, sensed the danger even though she was not facing Effie. The researcher observing them did not notice the danger, but the mother gorilla’s vigilance allowed her to take steps to save the baby gorilla (p. 89).


Summarizing is condensing another person’s words so that you present the basics of what has been said. A common instance of summarizing is annotating a list of bibliographic sources for a paper. The summary or annotation presents the heart of the material being described. It also needs to be properly cited!


In Gorillas in the Mist, Fossey (1983) illustrates that female gorillas instinctively protect their offspring as much or more so than female humans (p. 89).

You may wish to test your knowledge of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing by looking at Eight Guidelines to Help You Avoid Plagiarism.


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