Chicago Citation Examples

DOCUMENTARY-NOTE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY EXAMPLES

Note:

  • The information presented in this guide is based on:
    The University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
  • Copies of this manual can be found in most academic libraries and are available for sale at university bookstores.
  • Please refer to the manual, the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for many additional examples of citing different types of materials.
  • Please contact the library if you have any citation-related questions.

Some General Rules

Which Style?

  • APA, MLA and Chicago
    There are three major styles used when citing works—American Psychological Association (APA) style, Modern Language Association (MLA) style and the style taken from the Chicago Manual of Style (for the purpose of this guide will be referred to as Chicago). APA is the preferred style for social sciences such as business, psychology, and sociology. MLA is the preferred style for humanities-related areas such as literature. Chicago is the preferred style for history and the publishing industry.

    Be aware that all students in UMUC's Graduate School of Management & Technology must use the APA style of citation.
  • Chicago Style
    The Chicago style allows for two different types of reference styles: the Author-Date System and the Documentary-Note (or Humanities) Style. Traditionally, those in the humanities and social sciences (including history) use the Documentary-Note Style, and those in the sciences use the Author-Date System. Below are guidelines for citing Web-based resources as notes in the Documentary-Note Style.
  • Turabian Style
    Turabian style is often mentioned in conjunction with the Chicago style. Turabian is a simplified version of the Chicago style and was developed specifically for students who are writing papers, unlike Chicago, which was originally developed for publishers. Turabian is the popular name of the writing style. (The full title of the handbook is A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, but it is usually referred to by the last name of its author, Kate L. Turabian, who developed it for the University of Chicago). See the Turabian Quick Guide for many additional examples of citing different types of materials. Please note that UMUC uses Chicago style, not Turabian.

Bibliography and Reference Lists

If a bibliography or reference list is required, the format for the bibliography or reference list differs from notes in the following ways: authors' names are inverted, the citations are listed alphabetically by author's last name (by title if no author), elements of entries are separated by periods not commas, the first line of each entry is flush with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces.

Type

Example

Documentary-note

In the text:
Use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text.

He concluded that the book "will stimulate thought about important questions. Swallowed whole, its effects would be disastrous."1

In the note:
The note number is followed by a period and space.

1. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639-40.

Bibliographic entry

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.



Authors


   

Number of Authors

Example

One author

Documentary-note:

Wendy Doniger

Bibliographic entry:

Doniger, Wendy

Two authors

Documentary-note:

Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar

Bibliographic entry:

Cowlishaw, Guy and Robin Dunbar

Three authors

Documentary-note:

Graeme K. Deans, Fritz Kroeger and Stefan Zeisel

Bibliographic entry:

Deans, Graeme K., Fritz Kroeger and Stefan Zeisel

Four or more authors

Documentary-note:

Edward O. Laumann et al.

Bibliographic entry:

Same as three authors. List all in the bibliography.

Group author

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees

No authors listed

Begin with the title.



Undated Sources


Date

Example

No date given

n.d.



Note Numbers

The number of the citation. In Chicago Documentary-Note style, citation notes are listed numerically.

Ibid. (Latin, short for ibidem, meaning "the same place")

The first time a source is cited, give the complete information as in the above example. However, for the second and next consecutive reference to the same source (with the same page number) use Ibid. If the reference is the same, but the page is not, add the page number, like this: Ibid., 44.

For subsequent reference to the same source, but later in the paper, use an abbreviated version of the reference, using the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. For example: Deans, Kroeger, and Zeisel, HBR, 21.

Citing a Source within a Source


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

You read a book by Costello that cites an earlier article by Zukofsky. You want to cite Zukofsky's article, but have not read Zukofsky's article itself.

Documentary-note:

7. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931):269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

Bibliographic entry:

Zukofsky, Louis."Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931):269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981, 78.



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Articles

Academic Journals


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

3. William Maiben, “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos 1/2 (Autumn 1980-Summer 1981): 533, accessed September 5, 2009, http://www.jstor.org/stable/832614.

Bibliographic entry:

Maiben, William. “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980.” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos 1/2 (Autumn 1980-Summer 1981): 533. Accessed September 5, 2009. http://www.jstor.org/stable/832614.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number.

Documentary-note:

4. Niki Pantelli and Robert Tucker, "Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams," Communications of the ACM 52, no. 12 (2009): 113-115, accessed April 20, 2010, Business Source Complete (45580320).

Bibliographic entry:

Pantelli, Niki and Robert Tucker. "Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams." Communications of the ACM 52, no. 12 (2009): 113-115. Accessed April 20, 2010. Business Source Complete (45580320).

Free Web

Article with a DOI:

Documentary-note:

6. Patrick G. P. Charles et al., “SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377, accessed July 17, 2009, doi:10.1086/589754.

Bibliographic entry:

Charles, Patrick G. P. et al. “SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377. Accessed July 17, 2009. doi:10.1086/589754.

Article without a DOI: Use URL.

Documentary-note:

7. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), accessed November 15, 2006, http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo.

Bibliographic entry:

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002). Accessed November 15, 2006. http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo.

In print

Documentary-note:

8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Bibliographic entry:

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393 (1998): 639.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tips:

  • Author—The author(s) of the article. Authors' names are given as they are found in articles. If no author is given, then the article title should be listed first, followed by the date.
  • Article title—The title of the article. In notes they are usually capitalized headline style and put in quotation marks; in reference lists they are usually capitalized sentence style, without quotation marks.
  • Journal/magazine title—The title of the journal or magazine in which the article was published. The journal title should be italicized and capitalized headline style in notes and reference lists.
  • Volume and issue—Include this information if it is provided for journals.
  • Date—Provide the year the work was published. Weekly or monthly magazines (as opposed to journals) even if numbered by volume and issue are cited by date only (including the day if a weekly magazine) following the title of the magazine. In that case, cite a specific page number and separate by a comma, not a colon.
  • Pagination—In notes, only specific pages need be cited (Unless the article as a whole is referred to). Use start and end pages, if provided (e.g. 60–79)in reference lists.
  • Date of access—after page number(s).
  • Article URL—If the article is from a library database and has a stable or permanent URL, use that, if not use the database name and document ID or accession number.

Magazines


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

8. Carla Joinson, "Managing Virtual Teams," HRMagazine, June 2002, 68, accessed August 14, 2010, http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=6759491&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Bibliographic entry:

Joinson, Carla. "Managing Virtual Teams." HRMagazine, June 2002, 68. Accessed August 14, 2010. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=6759491&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number.

Documentary-note:

9. Judith A. Ross, "Trust Makes the Team Go 'Round," Harvard Management Update, June 2006, 3, accessed May 16, 2010, Business Source Complete (21042418).

Bibliographic entry:

Ross, Judith A. "Trust Makes the Team Go 'Round." Harvard Management Update, June 2006, 3. Accessed May 16, 2010. Business Source Complete (21042418).

Free Web

Include the URL (or DOI if available) at the end of the citation.

Documentary-note:

10. Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50, accessed June 10, 2010, http://www.hortmag.com/weekly-tips/garden-design/the_new_german_style.

Bibliographic entry:

Lacey, Stephen. "The New German Style." Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50. Accessed June 10, 2010. http://www.hortmag.com/weekly-tips/garden-design/the_new_german_style.

In print

Documentary-note:

29. Steve Martin, "Sports-Interview Shocker," New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.

Bibliographic entry:

Martin, Steve. "Sports-Interview Shocker." New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tip:

  • Date—Magazines citations differ from academic journal citations in that they are cited by date only. Volume and issue numbers are not included.

Newspapers


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

11. David Ignatius, "Avoiding Another 'Slam-Dunk'," The Washington Post, May 24, 2006, accessed November 3, 2007, http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/pqdweb?did=1041165271&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=8724&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Bibliographic entry:

Ignatius, David. "Avoiding Another 'Slam-Dunk'." The Washington Post, May 24, 2006. Accessed November 3, 2007. http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/pqdweb?did=1041165271&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=8724&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number.

Documentary-note:

13. Eleena de Lisser, "Update on Small Business: Firms With Virtual Environments Appeal to Workers." Wall Street Journal, October 5, 1999, accessed September 30, 2008, ProQuest Newspapers (45315145).

Bibliographic entry:

de Lisser, Eleena. "Update on Small Business: Firms With Virtual Environments Appeal to Workers." Wall Street Journal, October 5, 1999. Accessed September 30, 2008. ProQuest Newspapers (45315145).

Free Web

Include the URL (or DOI if available) at the end of the citation.

Documentary-note:

14. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

Bibliographic entry:

Stolberg, Sheryl Gay and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

In print

Documentary-note:

10. William S. Niederkorn, "A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare' Discovery," New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Bibliographic entry:

Niederkorn, William S."A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare' Discovery." New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tips:

  • Author—The author(s) of the article. If no author is given, then the article title should be listed first.
  • Newspaper title—The title of the newspaper in which the article was published. The newspaper title should be italicized.
  • Month, day, year—The date the article was published.
  • Edition—If given.
  • Article URL—If the article is from a library database and has a stable or permanent URL, use that, if not use the database name and document ID or accession number.

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

15. Britannica Online, s.v. “Salish” (by John Smith), accessed September 12, 2004, http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/520/47.html.

Bibliographic entry:

Britannica Online. s.v. “Salish” (by John Smith). Accessed September 12, 2004. http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/520/47.html.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number (example).

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Articles Freely Available on the Web


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Free Web

Article with a DOI:

Documentary-note:

1. Hope A. Olson, "Codes, Cost, and Critiques: The Organization of Information in Library Quarterly, 1931-2004," Library Quarterly 76, no. 1 (2006): 20, accessed July 18, 2008, doi:10.1086/504343.

Bibliographic entry:

Olson, Hope A. "Codes, Cost, and Critiques: The Organization of Information in Library Quarterly, 1931-2004." Library Quarterly 76, no. 1 (2006): 20. Accessed July 18, 2008. doi:10.1086/504343.

Article without a DOI: Use URL.

Documentary-note:

4. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, "Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach," Evanston Public Library, accessed July 18, 2003, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

Bibliographic entry:

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. "Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach." Evanston Public Library. Accessed July 18, 2003, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tips:

  • Author—The author(s) of the article. If no author is given, then the organization sponsoring the Web site or the Web site name should be listed first, followed by the document title.
  • Web document title—The name of the document cited from the Web site.
  • Web site name— The name of the Web site or organization sponsoring the Web site if there is no specific name to the Web site.
  • Date of access—after page number(s).
  • Article DOI—Use the article doi of one is provided, if not use the article URL.

Book, Film, and Product Reviews


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

1. James Gorman, "Endangered Species," review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16, accessed January 3, 2010, http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=29300892&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Bibliographic entry:

Gorman, James. "Endangered Species." Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16. Accessed January 3, 2010. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=29300892&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number (example).

In print

Documentary-note:

1. James Gorman, "Endangered Species," review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.

Bibliographic entry:

Gorman, James. "Endangered Species." Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tip:

  • Review name—The title of the review (if given) follows the author's name. The name of the work reviewed and the author of the work then follow.

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Books


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Basic book

Documentary-note:

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

Bibliographic entry:

Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Edited or translated book

Documentary-note:

4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

Bibliographic entry:

Lattimore, Richard, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Numbered edition other than the first

Documentary-note:

22. Ernest Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. (London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987), 26. Citations are to the Penguin edition.

Bibliographic entry:

Gowers, Ernest. The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987. Citations are to the Penguin edition.

Revised edition

Documentary-note:

23. Jacques Barzun, Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers, rev. ed. (1985; repr., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 152-53.

Bibliographic entry:

Barzun, Jacques. Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers. Rev. ed. 1985. Reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Multi-volume set

Documentary-note:

37. Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 129.

Bibliographic entry:

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Documentary-note:

5. Andrew Wiese, "'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States," in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.

Bibliographic entry:

Wiese, Andrew."'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States." In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tips:

  • Author—The author(s) of the book. If no author is given, then begin with the book title.
  • Book title—The title of the book.
  • Publisher, year— The name of the publisher followed by the year the book was published.

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E-Books


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Library database

Documentary-note:

6. Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business (Harvard Business School Press, 2001), accessed January 4, 2011, NetLibrary e-book.

Bibliographic entry:

Davenport, Thomas H. and John C. Beck. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Harvard Business School Press, 2001. Accessed January 4, 2011. NetLibrary e-book.

Free Web

E-book with a DOI:

Documentary-note:

1. Elliot Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), accessed March 10, 2010, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

Bibliographic entry:

Antokoletz, Elliot. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Accessed March 10, 2010. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

E-Book without a DOI:
Use the URL.

Documentary-note:

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Bibliographic entry:

Kurland, Philip B. and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Book chapter from a library database

Suggested format:

Database record that offers a permanent link:

Documentary-note:

5. Peter Barker, "Scientists of the Past" in World Almanac and Book of Facts (New York: World Almanac Education Group, 2006), 229-31, accessed June 15, 2009, http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=28821189&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Bibliographic entry:

Barker, Peter. "Scientists of the Past." In World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York: World Almanac Education Group, 2006. Accessed June 15, 2009. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=28821189&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Database record that does not offer a permanent link: Use database name and document ID or accession number (example).

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tips:

  • Author—The author(s) of the book. If no author is given, then begin with the book title.
  • Book title—The title of the book.
  • Publisher, year— The name of the publisher followed by the year the book was published.
  • Format—The name of the e-book collection followed by the word e-book.

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Web Sites


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Web Sites

If the Web site has a date:

Documentary-note:

1. “Google Privacy Policy,” Google, last modified March 11, 2009, accessed July 13, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

Bibliographic entry:

Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. Accessed July 13, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

If no date is found:
Just use the accessed date rather than (n.d.) for no date.

Documentary-note:

2. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Bibliographic entry:

McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



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WebTycho Classroom Materials (Suggested Format)


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

A document in a WebTycho classroom

Documentary-note:

3. Denny Whitford, "Cross-curricular Initiatives in NCSI 170" in University of Maryland University College Online Classroom, accessed November 17, 2006, http://tychousa.umuc.edu/.

Bibliographic entry:

Whitford, Denny. "Cross-curricular Initiatives in NCSI 170." In University of Maryland University College Online Classroom. Accessed November 17, 2006. http://tychousa.umuc.edu/.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tip:

  • This is a suggested format. Chicago does not directly address online classroom materials.

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Dissertations and Theses


Source

Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry

Dissertations and Theses database

Documentary-note:

25. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), accessed October 12, 2010, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3300426).

Bibliographic entry:

Choi, Mihwa.“Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. Accessed October 12, 2010. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3300426).

In print

Documentary-note:

22. M. Amundin, "Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena" (PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29.

Bibliographic entry:

Amundin, M. "Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena." PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991.

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



Tip:

  • The type (master's thesis or PhD diss., for example), school, and date published follow the title.

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Images


Source

Credit Line

Image

A brief statement of the source of an illustration, known as a credit line, is usually appropriate and sometimes mandatory.

(Cartoon by John Leech. "Punch's Almanac for 1855," Punch 28 [1855]: 8.)

More info

General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.



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