MLA Citation Examples

WORKS CITED LIST EXAMPLES
Based on MLA Handbook, 7th Edition, 2009

Need More Help?

For a more detailed explanation of how to use MLA style, see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. This is the Modern Language Association's official citation guide. The manual is unfortunately not available online, but reference copies are available in all 16 University of Maryland libraries.

You can also contact a librarian 24/7 for help finding a copy in a library near you or to ask a citation-related question.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work
(or a work that has no page numbers)

Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

OR

A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

A specific page

(Cortois 70)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

Multi-volume set

(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors

One author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, Charles A.

(Cortois 70)



Two or three authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

Hughes, Jane C., Elizabeth V. Brestan, and Linda Anne Valle.

(Martin and Jackson 127-28)

(Hughes, Brestan, and Valle 2-3)



Four or more authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Fontela, Pablo, Antonio Sorio, Javier Mielgo, and Juan de Blas.

or

Fontela, Pablo, et al.

If a work has more than 3 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al" (Latin for "and others").

(Fontela, Sorio, Mielgo, and Blas 153-54)

or

(Fontela et al. 153-54)



Group author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Modern Language Association.

(Modern Language Association 111)



No authors listed

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

"None to Claim Their Bones: Relics of an Old Brooklyn Graveyard." New York Times 8 Apr. 1888: 3-4. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 10 June 2006.

List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

 

("None to Claim Their Bones" 3)

 

In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.



Titles

Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

Dates

With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

  • January = Jan.
  • February = Feb.
  • March = Mar.
  • April = Apr.
  • August = Aug.
  • September = Sept.
  • October= Oct.
  • November = Nov.
  • December = Dec.

Undated Sources: Use "n.d." (for "no date") in the appropriate place in your citation. When this is used after a period in a citation, capitalize the "n" ("N.d.").

Source

Example

No date given

Knowles, Allison. House of Dust. N.d. Sculpture. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Grove Art Online. Web. 7 Aug. 2006.



Volume and Issue Numbers

Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

Source

Example

Journal volume and issue number available

Child and Family Behavior Therapy 26.1 (2004).

26 is the volume number and 1 is the issue number.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

Journal of Family Counseling (2004).



Page Numbers


Source

Example

Page range whose first number is over 100

125-35 (not 125-135)

3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

American Psychologist 59 (2004): n. pag.

Follow the date of the magazine or journal with "n. pag."



Citing a Source within a Source

Scenario: You read an article by Brown that cites, on page 424, another article by Larsen. You want to cite Larsen's article, but you have not read Larsen's article itself.

Works Cited List

In-Text Citation

Brown, J. D. "Librarians as Business People: A Review of the Literature." Journal of For-Profit Librarianship 28 (2006): 421-436. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 May 2007.

Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Brown. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Larsen's article.

Larsen's study (cited in Brown 424) found that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Larsen and shows the source in which you found Larsen's ideas.

OR

Larsen writes, "Today's librarian is part teacher, part entrepreneur" (qtd. in Brown 424).

If Brown's article quotes Larsen's article directly and you want to use that quotation, MLA style employs the abbreviation "qtd. in" for "quoted in."



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Articles

Academic Journals:


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Hughes, Jane C., Elizabeth V. Brestan, and Linda Anne Valle. "Problem-Solving Interactions between Mothers and Children." Child and Family Behavior Therapy 26.1 (2004): 1-16. PsycINFO. Web. 12 Nov. 2006.

Free Web

Martin, Pearl Y., and Sonia Jackson. "Educational Success for Children in Public Care: Advice from a Group of High Achievers." Child and Family Social Work 7.2 (2002): 121-30. Web. 15 Nov. 2006.

In print

Hughes, Jane C., Elizabeth V. Brestan, and Linda Anne Valle. "Problem-Solving Interactions between Mothers and Children." Child and Family Behavior Therapy 26.1 (2004): 1-16. Print.

More info



Tip:

  • Include volume and issue number (example: "26.1") when both are available.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Borowitz, Adam. "Pavlov's Brother." New Yorker 11 Nov. 2004: 63-65. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Nov. 2006.

Free Web

Springen, Karen. "Artful Aging." Newsweek 25 Jan. 2005: n. pag. Web. 12 May 2005.

In print

Borowitz, Adam. "Pavlov's Brother." New Yorker 11 Nov. 2004: 63-65. Print.

More info



-Monthly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Ives, Frank, and Jonathan Lydon. "Freud's Vienna Revisited." Discover Aug. 2005: 16-17. PsycINFO. Web. 15 Mar. 2006.

Free Web

Gelb, Norman. "Winter of Discontent." Smithsonian May 2003: n. pag. Web. 3 Apr. 2005.

In print

Ives, Frank, and Jonathan Lydon. "Freud's Vienna Revisited." Discover Aug. 2005: 16-17. Print.

More info



Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

Newspapers


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times 5 Sept. 1999: A1+. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 10 June 2006.

Free Web

Forman, Jackson. "Allston Gothic." Boston Globe 12 Aug. 2003: n. pag. Web. 12 June 2006.

In print

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times 5 Sept. 1999: A1+. Print.

More info



Tip:

  • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Jackson, Keith. “Chesapeake Bay.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006 ed. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Web. 14 Sept. 2006.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Rev. of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times 13 Dec. 2006: E8+. ProQuest Newspapers . Web. 11 Dec. 2006.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Rev. of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health 15.2 (2006): 713-16. PsycARTICLES. Web. 2 Apr. 2006.

In print

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Rev. of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times 13 Dec. 2006: E8+. Print.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Rev. of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health 15.2 (2006): 713-16. Print.

More info



Tip:

  • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

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Books


Source

Works Cited List

Basic book

Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 1993. Print.

Edited book

Miller, John, and Tim Smith, eds. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1996. Print.

Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

Numbered edition other than the first

Arking, Robert. The Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

Revised edition

Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i. Rev. ed. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006. Print.

Multi-volume set

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962-63. Print.

In-text citation: (Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Chapter or article in an anthology

De Maria, Walter. "The Lightning Field." 1980. Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Ed. Kristine Styles and Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. 527-30. Print.

If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title as shown above. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation. Additional examples of citations for anthology contents can be found on pages 158-9 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.).

More info



Tips:

  • Note on citation elements in books
    Give the city of publication, publisher's name and year of publication (e.g. "New York: Random House, 1977"). If several cities are listed, give only the first. For cities outside the United States, add an abbreviation of the country (or province for Canadian cities) if you think the location will be unfamilar to your readers, for example:

    • Bells Yew Green, Eng.
    • Neepawa, MB
    A complete list of geographic name abbreviations is available on pages 236-40 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.), and you can always contact the library if you need help finding an abbreviation.

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E-Books


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Kornblum, William. At Sea in the City: New York from the Water's Edge. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 2002. NetLibrary. Web. 23 June 2006.

Free Web

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg. Web. 8 May 2006.

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Herlong, Mark. "Traces of the Past in Blagden Alley." Washington Palimpsest. Ed. Ryan Shepard. Washington: Reedbird Hill Press, 2005. 102-15. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2006.

Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

More info



Tips:

  • Note on citation elements in e-books
    Give the city of publication, publisher's name and year of publication (e.g. "Boston: David R. Godine, 1977"). If several cities are listed, give only the first. For cities outside the United States, add an abbreviation of the country (or province for Canadian cities) if you think the location will be unfamiliar to your readers, for example:

    • Bells Yew Green, Eng.
    • Neepawa, MB
    A complete list of geographic name abbreviations is available on pages 236-40 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.), and you can always contact the library if you need help finding an abbreviation.

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Web Sites


Source

Works Cited List

Section of a Web site

"Global Sea Turtle Populations Decline." Sea Turtle Restoration Project. 26 May 2002. Web. 22 Sept. 2006.

Entire Web site

Sea Turtle Restoration Project. Sea Turtle Restoration Project. 2006. Web. 5 Aug. 2006.

More info



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WebTycho Classroom Materials


Source

Works Cited List

A document in a WebTycho classroom

Whitford, Denny. "Cross-Curricular Initiatives in NSCI170." Document posted in University of Maryland University College NSCI 170 6981 online classroom. 1 Oct. 2006. Web. 22 Dec. 2006.

No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf>.

In print

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal  Agencies. Washington: Government Accountability Office, 2010. Print.

More info



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Dissertations and Theses

MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

Dissertations


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Diss. U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses. Web. 12 June 2006.

Free Web

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Diss. Ohio State U, 2005. Web. 9 Aug. 2006.

In print

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Diss. Ohio State U, 2005. Print.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." MA thesis U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses. Web. 22 Nov. 2006.

Free Web

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." MS thesis California Inst. of Technology, 2004. Web. 29 May 2007.

In print

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning.” MS thesis California Inst. of Technology, 2004. Print.

More info



Tips:

  • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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Images

MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

Titled Image


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Grove Art Online. Web. 22 Nov. 2006.

Free Web

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Web. 8 Aug. 2006.

The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2006. 232. Print.

More info



Untitled Image

If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Grove Art Online. Web. 30 Oct. 2006.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. New York: Grossman, 1975. 202. Print.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information.

More info



Tips:

  • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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Interviews and E-mail Messages


Source

Works Cited List

Interviews

Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

E-mail message

Smith, Joe. "The server is down." E-mail to the author. 18 Nov. 2006.

The name of the recipient of the e-mail should be given in the “e-mail to” line. You should refer to yourself as “the author” as shown above if the e-mail was addressed to you by its writer. The date given should be the date the e-mail was sent.

More info



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