Online Guide to Writing and Research

Chapter 5: Academic Integrity and Documentation

Types of Documentation

Note Citations

Researchers in the humanities, fine arts, history, philosophy, and religion use the older, more traditional style, called note citations. This style uses footnotes or endnotes and relies on a system of superscript numbers in the text and a related note at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper, article, or chapter (endnotes).

Here is an example of a note citation in text, along with its footnote at the bottom of the page, taken from Joseph Campbell’s The Hero with a Thousand Faces:

Example of a Note Citation

"It has always been the prime function of mythology and rite to supply the symbols that carry the human spirit forward, in counteraction to those other constant human fantasies that tend to tie it back."

Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 3rd printing (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973) 11.

This traditional style allows endnotes as an alternative to footnotes. You would compile your footnotes at the end of the paper or chapter in a list called endnotes. These endnotes then appear in numerical order by superscript number in a list called "Notes" at the end of your paper. In addition, you provide a separate bibliography where the sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name. Where there is no author, you use the first significant word of the title. Where the footnote entry is single-spaced, the endnotes and bibliography entries are double-spaced.

Thus, our entry in the Notes would look like the example below. We've included three hypothetical references to illustrate the format.

Notes

Christopher Vogler. The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Storytellers and Screenwriters. (California: Michael Wiese Productions, 1992) 23.

Joseph Campbell. The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 3rd printing. Bollingen Series. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973) 11.

Carol S. Pearson. Awakening the Heroes Within. (San Francisco: Harper, 1991) 102.

These three entries listed in the bibliography would look like this:

Bibliography

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 3rd printing. Bollingen Series. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Pearson, Carol S. Awakening the Heroes Within. San Francisco: Harper, 1991.

Vogler, Christopher. The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Storytellers and Screenwriters. California: Michael Wiese Productions, 1992.