Online Guide to Writing and Research

Chapter 5: Academic Integrity and Documentation

Types of Documentation

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual, long used by those in the physical and natural sciences, shares some similarities with APA and MLA styles in its use of note citations. Chicago favors the author-date citation within the text in parentheses, but also includes page numbers as an option. Like MLA style, Chicago style does not usually separate the author and date with a comma the way APA style does. Full bibliographic citations are then amplified in the list of references. Chicago favors the APA format of hanging indents—indenting the second and subsequent lines of the entries. Bibliographies are not a requirement. If your teacher requests that you use Chicago style, consult the manual for the exact format to use with varied sources.

Of course, other kinds of references require different treatment within the body and bibliography. You should refer to your style guide for examples of how to present them. Most style guides will provide reasonable approaches for presenting information about most resources (including works on CD-ROM, electronic databases, and the Internet), but not for World Wide Web resources. For a citation style for Web resources, see the section of this chapter entitled "Citing World Wide Web Sources."