Types of Documentation

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, long used by those in the physical and natural sciences, shares some similarities with APA and MLA styles in its use of note citations. Chicago favors the author-date citation within the text in parentheses but also includes page numbers as an option. Like MLA style, Chicago does not usually separate the author and date with a comma as APA style does.

Full bibliographic citations are amplified in the list of references. Chicago uses the hanging indent format—indenting the second and subsequent lines of the entries. Bibliographies are not a requirement. If your instructor asks you to use Chicago style, consult the manual for the exact format to use with varied sources.

Of course, other kinds of references require different treatment within the body of your paper and in the bibliography. Refer to your style guide for examples of how to present them.

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